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英语句子成分详解

不带to的动词不定式通常有下面十八种情况
活用构词法,巧解高考题
中考英语易错题

英语句子成分详解

句子是按照一定的语法规律组成的,表达一个完整的意义。一个句子一般由两部分构成,即主语部分和谓语部分,这两部分也叫做句子的主要成分。句子的次要成分包括宾语,定语,状语,表语、同位语等。

一.主语:

主语(subject) 是一个句子的主题( theme), 是句子所述说的主体、对象。它的位置一般在一句之首。可用作主语的有一个单词、短语、从句乃至句子。

1.名词作主语。 如:A tree has fallen across the road. (一棵树倒下横在路上。)

Little streams feed big rivers. ( 小河流入大江。)

2.代词用作主语。如:He told a joke but it fell flat. (他说了个笑话,但没有引人发笑)

Everybody enjoyed themselves on vacation. 假期里大家都过得很愉快。

3.数词用作主语。如:Three is enough. 三个就够了。

Four from seven leaves three. 7减4余3。

4.名词化的形容词用作主语。

The old and the young are taken good care of in that village.

5.副词用作主语(极少见)。如:Now is the time. 现在是时候了。

6.名词化的介词作主语。如:The ups and downs of life must be taken as they come.

我们必须承受人生之沉浮。

7.不定式用作主语。 如:To find your way can be a problem.你能否找到路可能是一个问题。

It is impossible to defeat a person who never gives up.要打败一个永不放弃的人是不可能的。

8. 动名词用作主语。如:Smoking is bad for you. 吸烟对你有害。

Watching a film is pleasure, while making one is hard work. 看电影是乐事,制作影片则是苦事.

9. 名词化的过去分词用作主语。如:The disabled are to receive more money.

残疾人将得到更多的救济金。 The unemployed got much help from the government.

10. 介词短语用作主语。如:To Beijing is not very far. 到北京不很远。

From Yenan to Nanniwan was a three-hour ride on horseback.从延安到南泥湾骑马要三个小时。

11. 从句用作主语。如:

That he finished writing the composition in such a short time surprised us all.

Whether we will go for an outing tomorrow remains unknown.

Who will be our monitor hasn't been decided yet.

What caused the accident has been found out..

Whatever you did is right.

What we need is time.

为了防止句子头重脚轻,通常把形式主语it放在主语位置,真正主语(从句)搁置于句末   It is certain that he will win the match.

It is strange that he should do that.

It is important that we all should attend the meeting.

It is still a mystery what caused the accident.

It is said that he has gone to shanghai.

It is known to all that the gun powder was first invented by the Chinese.

It is suggested that the work should be done with great care.

It seems that he has seen the film.

It happened that the two cheats were there.

12.句子用作主语。如:“How do you do ?” is a greeting.“你好”是一句问候语。

二.谓语

谓语(predicate) 或谓语动词(predicate verb)是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或状态,其位置一般在主语之后。谓语由简单动词或动词短语(助动词或情态动词+主要动词)构成。

1.由简单的动词构成。

(1). What happened? 发生了什么事?

(2). He worked hard all day today. 他今天苦干了一天。

(3). The plane took off at ten o’clock. 飞机是十点起飞的。

2.由动词短语构成的谓语。

(1). I am reading. 我在看书。

(2). You can do it if you try hard. 你努力就可以做到。

(3). Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday.

汤姆,你太懒惰了,这项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。

3.英语常用某些动作名词代替表动态的谓语动词,表生动。这种动作名词之前常用没有多大意义的动词have, get, take, give 等。如:

(1). I had a swim yesterday. 我昨天游了一次水(had a swim 代替了swam)

(2). Take a look at that! 你看看那个!(take a look 代替了 look)

(3). He gave a sigh. 他叹了口气。(gave a sigh 代替了sighed)

(4). I got a good shake-up.我受到了很大的震动。(a good shake-up 代替了was shaken up thoroughly(充分,彻底的))

谓语是句子的灵魂,谓语的变化可以反映:时态、语态、语气、主谓一致等,这也是高中语法最重要的内容。

三.表语

表语的功能是表述主语的特征、状态、身份等。它也可以说是一种主语补语。它位于联系动词之后,与之构成所谓的系表结构。在系表结构钟,联系动词只是形式上的谓语,二真正起谓语作用的则是表语。可以作表语的词有:名词、代词、数词、形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语、从句等。

1.The wedding was that Sunday. 婚礼是在那个星期天举行的。(名词)

2.So that’s that. 就是这样。(代词)

3.We are seven. 我们一共7人。(数词)

4.Are you busy? 你有空吗?(形容词)

5.Are you there? 你在听吗?(电话用语)(副词)

Is anybody in? 里面有人吗? (副词)

6.All I could do was to wait. 我只能等待。(不定式)

My answer to his threat was to hit him on the nose.

我对他的威胁的回答是照他的鼻子打去。(不定式)

7.Seeing is believing. 百闻不如一见 /眼见为实(动名词)

8.I was so much surprised at it. 我对此事感到很惊讶。(过去分词)

I’m very pleased with what he has done. 我对他所做的很满意。(过去分词)

9.She is in good health. 她很健康。(介词短语)

The show is from seven till ten. 演出时间为7点至10点。(介词短语)

10.Is that why you were angry? 这就是你发怒的原因吗?(从句)

11.This is where I first met her. 这就是我初次与她会面的地方。(从句)

12. The reason why he didn't come to school is that he got ill.

他没有来上学的原因是他生病了。

13. What I want is what he has got.

补充:

除了系动词be外,还有些能做系动词的实义动词,也称为半系动词,其后也要接形容词做表语: come , go , run, turn ,get , become , keep , stay , make (表变化的动词)

fell,sound ,smell , look , taste (感观动词)

seem, appear (似乎,好像)

例如:

1.Our dream has come true. 我的梦想实现了。(Come后常加 easy , loose, natural 等)

2. He fell sick. 他病了。

3. Keep fit.保重。 Keep作为系动词还常接quiet ,calm ,cool,warm ,silent,clean,dry

3.The well ran dry. 这口井干枯了。(short , loose , wild , cold 等)

4.A thin person always seems to be taller than he really is.

一个瘦个子似乎比他的实际高度要高些。

四.宾语

宾语(object)在句中主要充当动作、行为、活动的对象、接受者或受影响者。因此一般皆置于及物动词之后。如:

Our team beat all the others. 我们的球队打败了所有其他球队。

可以用作宾语的有:名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、名词化的分词、从句等。

1.Do you fancy a drink? 你想喝一杯吗?(名词)

2.They won’t hurt us. 他们不会伤害我们。(代词)

3.If you add 5 to 5, you get 10. 5加5等于10。(数词)。

4.I shall do my possible. 我将尽力而为。(名词化形容词)

5.He left there last week. 他上个星期离开了那里。(副词)

6.Does she really want to leave home? 她真的要离开家吗?(不定式)

7. We do not allow / permit smoking in the kitchen. 我们不允许在厨房里吸烟。(动名词)

8.He never did the unexpected. 他从不做使人感到意外的事。(名词化的分词)

9.Do you understand what I mean? 你明白我的意思吗?(从句)

10. He told me that he would go to the college the next year. 他告诉我他明年上大学

11. I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 我不知道是否还会有公交车.

12. Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam.没人知道他是否会通过考试.

13. Do you know who has won Red Alert game?   你知道是谁赢得了红色警报的游戏?

14. Have you determined whichever you should buy ,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?

你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?

15. He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面

扩展 + 归纳:

一、宾语中有些动词需要两个同等的宾语,即直接宾语(direct object)与间接宾语(indirect object)。直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,间接宾语指动作所向的或所为的人和物(多指人),具有这种双宾语的及物动词叫做与格动词(dative verb), 常用的有:answer, bring, buy, do, find, get, give, hand, keep, leave, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, pay, play, promise, read, save, sell, send, show, sing, take 等,了一个职位。动词后面跟双宾语时可以采用两种结构:

A、 动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(物)。如:Please show me your passport.

B、 动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语。注意,一般情况介词用to, 如:

Please show your passport to me.但动词是make, buy, get, cook, borrow, sing时,介词用for.如: Please make me a kite. = Please make a kite for me.

C、还有少数动词+sb.+ of + sth。如:

① inform sb.of sth. ② remind sb.of sth.

③ rid sb.of sth ④ warn sb.of sth.

⑤ rob sb.of sth ⑥ cheat sb.of sth.

⑦ cure sb.of sth. ⑧ accuse/charge sb.of sth.

二、以下是需要强化记忆的:

A:习惯上要接不定式作宾语且不能接动名词作宾语的动词有:

afford 付得起 agree 同意 apply 申请 arrange 安排 ask 要求

care 想要 choose 决定 decide 决定 demand 要求 desire 请求

determine 决心 expect 期待 help 帮助 hope 希望 intend 打算

manage 设法 offer 主动提出 plan 计划 prepare 准备 pretend 假装

promise 答应 refuse 拒绝 want 想要 wish 希望 fail 失败

B:习惯上要接动名词作宾语且不能接不定式作宾语的动词有:

admit 承认 advise 建议 allow 允许 appreciate 感激 suggest 建议

avoid 避免 consider 考虑 delay 推迟 deny 否认 stop 停止

discuss 讨论 dislike 不喜欢 enjoy 喜爱 escape 逃脱 risk 冒险

excuse 原谅 fancy 设想 finish 完成 forbid 禁止 report 报告

forgive 原谅 give up 放弃 imagine 想像 keep 保持 put off 推迟

mention 提及 mind 介意 miss 没赶上 pardon 原谅

permit允许 practise 练习 prevent 阻止 prohibit 禁止

请看以下典型用例:

I admit breaking the window. 我承认窗子是我打破的。

I appreciate being given this opportunity. 非常感谢给了我这个机会。

I avoided mentioning the subject in case he should be offended. 我回避提及这个问题,以免触犯他。

He suggested taking the children to the zoo. 他提议带孩子们去动物园。

【说明】advise, allow, forbid, permit等动词之后,虽然不能直接跟不定式作宾语,但可接不定式作宾语补足语。如:

The doctor advised me to stay in for a few days. 医生嘱我在家休息几天。

The nurse allowed him to remain there, though it was not permitted. 护士让他留在那儿,而按规定那是不许可的。

而有些动词(如consider, understand, discuss)则可接“疑问词+不定式”作宾语。如:

Have you considered how to get there? 你是否考虑过如何到那儿去?

She doesn’t understand how to look after him. 她不知道应如何照顾他。

We discussed what to do and where we should go. 我们讨论了该怎么办及到哪里去。

C:既可接不定式也可接动名词作宾语、两者意思基本相同,有时甚至可以互换的动词主要有:

有的动词既可后接不定式作宾语,也可后接动名词作宾语,

like 喜欢 love 喜欢 hate 憎恨 prefer 宁可

begin 开始 start 开始 continue 继续 can’t bear 不能忍受

bother 麻烦 intend 打算 attempt 试图 cease 停止

请看以下典型用例:

They continued to meet [meeting] daily. 他们继续每天都见面。

I like keeping [to keep] everything tidy. 我喜欢将每件东西都保持整洁。

She never ceased complaining [to complain] about prices. 她没完没了地抱怨物价。

【注意】当 like, love, hate, prefer 与 would, should 连用时,其后习惯上只能接不定式,不能接动名词。

D、既可接不定式也可接动名词作宾语、两者意思不相同的动词主要有:

(1) remember(记得),forget(忘记),regret(后悔)后接不定式指该不定式所表示的动作还未发生,后接动名词(有时可用完成式),则指该动名词所表示的动作已经发生。比较:

Remember to turn out the lights before you go to bed. 临睡前别忘了关灯。

I remember reading about the earthquake in the papers. 我记得在报纸上看过关于这次地震的消息。

Don’t forget to turn down the gas after an hour or so. 别忘了过一小时左右把煤气关小点儿。

I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. 我永不会忘记第一次看见长城的情景。

I regret to say the job has been filled. 十分抱歉,那个工作已经有人做了。

I regret saying what I said. I shouldn’t have said it. 我懊悔讲了我讲的话。我是不应当这样讲的。

(2) try 后接不定式表示设法做某事,接动名词表示做某事试试(看有什么效果)。如:

You shouldn’t try to leave the restaurant without paying. 你不应该试图不付账就离开饭店。

You really must try to overcome your shyness 你确实需要努力克服你的腼腆。

(3) mean 后接不定式表示打算(想要)做某事,接动名词表示意味着(要)做某事。如:

To mean to do something and to actually do something are two different things. 打算做一件事和实际上做一件事完全是两回事。

If we mean to catch the early bus, that means getting up before five. 要想赶早班车,我们就得在5点钟以前起床。

(4) stop 后接动名词表示停止做某事,接不定式表示停下正在做的事去做另一事(注意:后接不定式时,不定式不是宾语,而是目的状语)。如:

He stopped speaking, and there was not a sound in the room. 他停止讲话,房里一点声音也没有了。

The bus stopped to take on more passengers. 公共汽车停下让乘客上车。

(5) can't help后接动名词表示禁不住去做某事,接不定式表示不能帮助做某事。如:

She’s a funny girl, but yet you can’t help liking her. 她是一个奇怪的姑娘,但你禁不住会喜欢她。

The medicine can't help to get rid of your cold. 这药不能帮你治好感冒。(from www.nmet168.com)

(6) go on 后接不定式表示做完某事后接着做另一事,接动名词表示继续做正在做的事。如:

The minister went on talking for two hours. 部长一连谈了两个小时。

The minister went on to talk about foreign policy. 部长接着就谈外交政策。

【专项训练】

01. I mustn’t annoy my boss because I can’t afford ______ my job.

A. losing B. to lose C. to have lost D. having lost

02. We arranged to meet at the cinema at 7.30, but he failed ______.

A. to turn up B. to turn down C. turning up D. turning down

03. I wouldn’t have offered ______ the plants if I’d known there were so many.

A. to water B. watering C. watered D. to have watered

04. Imagine ______ the answer to such an easy question!

A. not to know B. not knowing C. to not know D. not knew

05. They shouldn’t allow ______ here; the street is too narrow.

A. to park B. parked C. being parked D. parking

06. She imagined ______ into the office and ______ everyone what she thought of them.

A. walking, telling B. to walk, to tell C. to walk, telling D. walking, to tell

07. Peter, who had been driving all day, suggested ______ at the next town.

A. to stop B. stopped C. stopping D. having stopped

08. It annoys me when people forget ______ thank you.

A. saying B. having saying C. to say D. to have said

09. I forgot ______ a pen. Can you lend me one?

A. bringing B. to bring C. having brought D. to have brought

10. If you’re writing to your mother, don’t forget ______ something about her coming to stay.

A. to put in B. putting in C. to gave put in D. having put in

11. We regret ______ passengers that the l4.50 train for Cardiff will leave about 37 minutes late.

A. to inform B. informing C. informed D. having informed

12. She stopped ______ about her illness and went on ______ us about all her other problems.

A. talking, telling B. to talk, to tell C. talking, to tell D. to talk, telling

13. He began by ______ us where the island was and went on ______ us about its climate.

A. showing, telling B. to show, to tell C. showing, to tell D. to show, telling

14. — Robert is indeed a wise man.

— Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ______ his advice!

A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking

15. — Can I smoke here?

— Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here.

A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking

【参考答案】01—05 BAABD 06—10 ACCBA 11—15 ACCDD

五.补语

补语(complement)是一种补足主语和宾语的意义的句子成分。补足主语意义的句子成分叫做主语补语(subject complement),补足宾语意义的句子成分叫做宾语补语(object complement). 在英语中有些及物动词,接了宾语意义仍不完整,还需要有一个其他的句子成分,来补充说明宾语的意义、状态或者说补充说明宾语是什么、怎么样或做什么等,称为宾语补足语,简称宾补。

(1).形容词用作主语补语是常置于主语之前,后有逗号。

Tired and sleepy, I went to bed. 我又累又困,就去睡了。

有时可以置于主语之后,前后都有逗号,与非限定性定语相似。如:

The man, cruel beyond belief, didn’t listen to their pleadings.

那人不可置疑地残酷,不听取他们的恳求。

(2).可以用做宾语补语的有名词、形容词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语等

1.They named the child Jimmy. 他们将孩子命名为吉米。(名词用作宾补)

2.My mother looks so young that you would think her my sister.

我的母亲面很嫩,你会以为她是我的姐姐(名词短语作宾补)

3. He boiled the egg hard. 她将鸡蛋煮老了。(形容词用作宾语补语)

4.I found the book very interesting.我发现那本书很有趣。(形容词短语用作宾补)

5. We found the old lady in good health. (介词短语作宾补)

6.The comrades wanted Dr. Bethune to take cover.

同志们要白求恩大夫隐蔽一下。(不定式用作宾语补语)

7. I heard Jean singing this morning.(现在分词作宾补)

8. He had his wallet stolen yesterday. (过去分词作宾补)

注:A、当感官动词和使役动词,接宾补时,不定式的符号to必须省略。如:

see hear notice watch hear feel observe(感官动词)

make have let(使役动词)

在help后,不定式可以带to,也可不带。

B、主动语态中的宾补,在被动语态中则成了主语补语了。如:

(1) I saw him playing basketball yesterday.

(2) He was seen playing basketball yesterday.

六.定语

定语是用来修饰、限定、说明名词或代词的品质与特征的。 主要有形容词此外还有名词、代词、数词、介词短语、动词不定式(短语)、分词、定语从句或相当于形容词的词、短语或句子都可以作定语。

1.形容词用作定语是大量的。

(1). She is a natural musician. 她是一位天生的音乐家。

(2). He must be the best violinist alive.他一定是最好的在世的小提琴手了。(后置定语)

2. 名词用作定语。如

(1). A baby girl 女婴

(2). well water 井水

(3). Sports car 双座轻型汽车

(4). A fool’s paradise 梦幻的天堂

3.代词作定语。

(1). Your hair needs cutting. 你该理发了。(物主代词用作定语)

(2). Everybody’s business is nobody’s business. 人人负责就是无人负责。

(不定代词所有格作定语)

4.数词作定语

(1). There’s only one way to do it. 做此事只有一法。

(2). Do it now, you may not get a second chance.

现在就干吧,你可能再没有机会了。

基数词用作后置定语: page 24 Room 201 the year 1949

5. 副词充当定语时常后置,如:

the room above 楼上的房间 the world today 今日世界

the way out 出路 a day off 休息日

6.不定式用作定语,后置。

(1). Her promise to write was forgotten.她忘记了答应写信的事。

(2). That’s the way to do it.那正是做此事的方法。

7.动名词用作定语.

A walking stick 拐杖 sleeping pills 安眠药

eating implements 吃饭用具 learning method 学习方法

8.分词充当定语

a sleeping child 正在睡中的小孩 a drinking man 嗜酒者

a retired worker 一个退休工人 a faded flower 一朵谢了的花

9.介词短语用作定语。

This is a map of China. 这是一幅中国地图。

The wild look in his eyes spoke plainer than words. 他那凶暴的目光说明得再清楚不过了。

10.从句用作定语,即定语从句

The car that is parked outside is mine. 停在外面的车是我的。

Your car, which I noticed outside, has been hit by another one.

我在外面看见你的汽车了,它给另一辆车撞了。

七.同位语

当两个指同一事物的句子成分放在同等位置时,一个句子成分可被用来说明或解释另一个句子成分,前者就叫做后者的同位语(appositive).这两个句子成分多由名词(代词)担任,同位语通常皆放在其说明的名词(代词)之后。

1.名词用作同位语是大量的。

(1). We have two children, a boy and a girl.我们有两个孩子,一男一女。

(2)We, the Chinese people, are determined to build China into a powerful and prosperous country. 我们中国人民决心将中国建成一个强大的繁荣的国家。

2.代词用作同位语。

They all wanted to see him. 他们都想见他。

Let’s you and me go to work, Oliver. 咱们俩去工作吧。

They each have an English-Chinese dictionary.

You’ll have to do it yourself. 你得自己去干。He himself doesn’t know why.

3.数词用作同位语。

(1)。Are you two ready?你们俩准备好了吗?

(2)。They two went, we three stayed behind.他们俩去了,我们三个留了下来。

4.不定式与动名词用作同位语。

(1)。Their latest proposal, to concentrate on primary education, has met with some opposition.他们最近提出了集中全力于初等教育的提议遭到了某些人的反对。

(2)。The first plan, attacking at night, was turned down.

第一个计划是夜袭,被拒绝了。

5.Of 短语用作同位语

The city of Rome 罗马城 the art of writing 写作艺术

The vice of smoking 吸烟嗜好

6.从句用同位语,即同位语从句

(1)。The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true.

明天放假的消息不确。

(2)。We are not investigating the question whether he is trustworthy.

我们不是在调查他是否可信赖的问题。

八.状语

状语(adverbial)是修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句的句子成分。。如:

1.The girl is improving remarkably. 这个女孩大有进步。

2.可用作状语的有副词、名词、代词、数词、形容词、不定式、分词、介词短语、从句等。

(1)副词最常用作状语,位置比较灵活,可置句末、句首和句中。

He speaks the language badly but read it well.

这种语言,他讲得不好,但阅读能力很强。

Naturally we expect hotel guests to lock their doors.

当我们期望旅馆的旅客把房门锁上。

3.状语按用途来分,可以分为时间、地点、方式、原因、结果、目的、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随等

(1)。时间状语,多位于句末和句首,有时亦可置于句中

Shall we do the shopping today or tomorrow?

In China now leads the world.

(2).地点状语,多置于句末,有时也位于句首和句中。

There are plenty of fish in the sea.

She kissed her mother on the platform(月台).

(3)。原因状语,包括表理由的状语,多置于句末,有时亦可置于句首。

Because he was ill ,Tom lost his job.

I eat potatoes because I like them.

(4). 结果状语,多由不定式、分词和从句表示,常位于句末。

She woke(醒) suddenly to find someone standing in the doorway.

She spoke so softly that I couldn’t hear what she said.

(5). 目的状语,多由不定式、介词短语和从句等表示,常位于句末,强调时可以置于句首。

He ran for shelter(隐蔽处).他跑去避雨。

In order to get into a good school, I must study even harder.

(6). 条件状语。多由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。

We’ll be lucky to get there before dark.

If he were to come, what should we say to him?

(7). 让步状语,由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。

For all his money, he didn’t seem happy. 他尽管有钱,但似乎并不幸福。

He helped me although he didn’t know me.

(8).程度状语。常由副词、介词短语及从句等表示。

The lecture is very interesting.

To what extent would you trust them? 你对他们信任程度如何?

(9)。伴随状语,常由短语和独立主格等表示。对位于句末和句首。

My train starts at six, arriving at Chicago at ten.

He stood there ,pipe(烟斗) in mouth.

第四章 破解英语句子之密码“钥匙”

——五种基本句型分析能力的培养

英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。

因此五种基本句型的分析能力的培养是分析一切复杂句子的基础。

所谓五种基本句型分析能力就是:看到一个简单句就能立刻分析出这个句子属于五种句型中的哪种;能够立刻分析出句子的主干是什么,能够快速分割,快速整合。我觉得,句子成分分析的最高境界就是:能“分”能“合”,(分,是为了更快的理解句义,合,是为了更好的理解句义)这一切都是在瞬间完成的。

怎样才能具备这种能力呢?

先理解理论(怎么去做的方法)后多实践做练习,我认为实践是最重要的,能力是在大量的实践练习中形成的。

在培养这个能力过程中还需要记忆任务。如:哪些动词后面要跟动词不定式,哪些动词后面要跟doing ,哪些动词后面需要跟双宾语等等这些都需要记忆,这项记忆任务完全可以通过练习实践来掌握,不做练习,只去死记那些东西是不容易掌握,而且你会比聪明地学习的人更累。

英语五种基本句型列式如下:

基本句型一: S V (主+谓)

基本句型二: S V P (主+谓+表)

基本句型三: S V O (主+谓+宾)

基本句型四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)

基本句型五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补)

基本句型 一

此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做不及物动词,后面可以跟次要成分----状语(由副词、介词短语、状语从句等充当)。

┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓

┃ S │ V (vi) ┃

┠———————————————┼———————————————┨

┃1. The sun │was shining. ┃

┃2. The moon │rose. ┃

┃3. The two workers │had to stay at home / at the factory. ┃

┃4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. ┃

┃5. Who │cares? ┃

┃6. What he said │does not matter. ┃

┃7. They │talked for half an hour. ┃

┃8. The pen │writes smoothly ┃

┗━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

9. They were talking and laughing when I came in.

1. 太阳在照耀着。 2. 月亮升起了。

3. 这两个工人不得不呆在家里/工厂里 4. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。

5. 管它呢? 6. 他所讲的没有什么关系。

7. 他们谈了半个小时。 8. 这支笔书写流利。

基本句型 二

此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。

┏━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓

┃ S │V(是系动词)│ P ┃

┠———————┼———————┼———————————————┨

┃1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. ┃

┃2. The dinner │smells │good. ┃

┃3. He │fell │in love. ┃

┃4. Everything │looks │different. ┃

┃5. He │is growing │tall and strong. ┃

┃6. The trouble │is │that they are short of money. ┃

┃7. Our well │has gone │dry. ┃

┃8. His face │turned │red. ┃

┗━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

1. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. 午餐的气味很好。

3. 他堕入了情网。 4. 一切看来都不同了。

5. 他长得又高又壮。 6. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。

7. 我们的井干枯了。 8. 他的脸红了。

基本句型 三

此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做及物动词。

┏━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓

┃ S │V(及物动词)│ O ┃

┠———————┼———————┼———————————————┨

┃1. Who │knows │the answer? ┃

┃2. She │smiled │her thanks. ┃

┃3. He │has refused │to help them. ┃

┃4. He │enjoys │reading. ┃

┃5. They │ate │what was left over. ┃

┃6. He │said │"Good morning." ┃

┃7. I │want │to have a cup of tea. ┃

┃8. He │admits │that he was mistaken. ┃

┗━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━

1. 谁知道答案? 2. 她微笑表示感谢。

3. 他拒绝帮他们的忙。 4. 他喜欢看书。

5. 他们吃了剩饭。 6. 他说:“早上好!”

7. 我想喝杯茶。 8. 他承认犯了错误。

基本句型 四

此句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者,另一个是动作的间接承受者。

┏━━━━┯━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓

┃ S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) ┃

┠————┼—————┼———————┼————————————┨

┃1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. ┃

┃2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. ┃

┃3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. ┃

┃4. He │denies │her │nothing. ┃

┃5. I │showed │him │my pictures. ┃

┃6. I │gave │my car │a wash. ┃

┃7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. ┃

┃8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. ┃

┗━━━━┷━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

1. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. 她给丈夫煮了一餐美馔。

3. 他给你带来了一本字典。 4. 他对她什么都不拒绝。

5. 我给他看我的照片。 6. 我洗了我的汽车。

7. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 8. 他教我开机器。

基本句型 五

此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还

不能表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。

┏━━━━┯━━━━━┯━━━━━━━┯━━━━━━━━━━━━┓

┃ S │V(及物)│ O(宾语)│ C(宾补) ┃

┠————┼—————┼———————┼————————————┨

┃1. They │appointed │him │manager. ┃

┃2. They │painted │the door │green. ┃

┃3. This │set │them │thinking. ┃

┃4. They │found │the house │deserted. ┃

┃5. What │makes │him │think so? ┃

┃6. We │saw │him │out. ┃

┃7. He │asked │me │to come back soon. ┃

┃8. I │saw │them │getting on the bus. ┃

┗━━━━┷━━━━━┷━━━━━━━┷━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

1. 他们任命他当经理。 2. 他们把门漆成绿色。

3. 这使得他们要细想一想。 4. 他们发现那房子无人居住。

5. 他怎么会这样想? 6. 我们送他出去。

7. 他要我早点回来。 8. 我看见他们上了那辆公共汽车。

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的

成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而

加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是

各种类型的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。下面以基本句

型五为例:

We found the hall full。 我们发现礼堂坐满了。

We found the great hall full of students and teachers.

我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。

We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report.

我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听一个重要报告。

We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report made by a comrade from the People's Daily on current affairs in East Europe.

我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听人民日报的一位同志作有关东欧局势的重要报告。

不同的动词使用的句型也不尽一样,因此在学习动词时,应掌握动词的类型。以 get 为例:

He's getting angry. (S V C)

He got through the window. (S V M)

You'll get a surprise. (S V O)

He got his shoes and socks wet. (S V O C)

He got himself into trouble. (S V O M)

He got her a splendid present. (S V 0 O)

在句子中词类和词的位置也影响句子的句型和意思:

I found the book easily.我很容易地找到了这本书。(S V O M)

I found the book easy. 我觉得这本书很容易。 (S V O C)

I have to do something. 我得做点事。

I have something to do. 我有点事做。

第五章 简单句不“简单” ——简单句的复杂化

我们这里说,简单句不“简单”了,就是说,如果如果你看到一个句子超长,它没准就是个简单句,千万不要以为只是短小的句子才是简单句,那是不一定的。那么,简单句又是怎么变“复杂”呢?大家看看下面几节也许就明白了。

第一节 并列“出现”之后…

我们这里说的并列是说句子成分的并列,在英语中,所有的句子成分都可以并列,于是就出现了并列主语、并列谓语、并列宾语、并列定语…,于是简单句就复杂了,于是你就迷茫了……

1.Tom, Mike and I are good friends.(三个并列主语)

2.I got up ,washed my face, brushed my teeth and went to school .( 四个并列谓语)

3.I like music ,sport, traveling, surfing the Internet and listening to music .(五个并列宾语)

4.This is a well-known German medical school.(四个并列定语)

第二节 非谓语动词在“作怪”

大家先看下面的句子:

1. To learn English is not easy. 2. He found it very difficult to get to sleep..

3. Lucy asked me to turn down the radio.. 4. His wish was to become a scientist.

5. There is nothing to worry about. 6. He woke up to find everybody gone. .

7. Learning new words is very useful to me.

9. The boy singing now is a classmate of mine..

10. One day she came into my room laughing happily.

11. The other students in the class keep their eyes closed.

12. Built in 1949, the exhibition hall is almost 50 years old.

你知道上面划线部分是什么呢?

非谓语动词,什么是非谓语动词呢?顾名思义,“非”,不也,非谓语动词即是不能作谓语的动词。英语中的动词按能否作谓语可以分为谓语动词和非谓语动词两种,这也就是非谓语动词的由来。 非谓语动词从形式上来看有三种:to do\doing\done 。从名称来看有四种:动词不定式(to do )、动名词(doing)、现在分词(doing)、过去分词(done)。这四位也就是非谓语家族的全体成员,也就是它们四位是不能来作谓语动词的。那么它们可以做什么成分呢?实际上,除了不能作谓语外,其他的句子成分,它们都可以作的,其中,动词不定式可以作除了谓语以外的一切成分,动名词可以做主语、宾语、定语、表语,现在分词可以作状语、定语、表语、宾补,过去分词可以作状语、定语、表语、宾补。 非谓语动词是高中英语语法的重点内容,也是高考必考内容。

一 找出下面句子中的非谓语动词,并指出是作什么句子成分

1.To know him is to like him. 2. Mr. Brown has a large family to keep.

3. He stood up to see better.. 4. They have started using computers in the library.

5. Her job is taking care of the wounded. 6. I watched them playing chess.

7. The computer needs repairing . 8. There is an old man wanting to see you.

9. I heard them quarrelling in the room . 10. Do you like teaching English?

第三节“阴魂不散的骨灰极”两大结构之——with结构与独立主格结构

为什么说是“阴魂不散”主要是说这两大结构在书面英语中你会经常遇到,经常感到难以理解。为什么说是“骨灰级”主要是因为这两大结构已经是简单句最难理解的部分了,如果你能够把这两大结构理解了,你也就是“骨灰级”人物了。

不过,这两大结构也不像我说的那样超恐怖,实际上,要是认真学起来,也不是太难。首先,我们来看with结构:

With 结构本身是由三部分组成:

with +名词/代词+to do/doing /done /形容词/介词短语等

此句型的关键是第三部分,因为它可以由多种形式来构成,请大家看下面的例句:

1. With so much work to do, he could not go home.

2. With his hands trembling, he sat there.

3. We like to sleep with windows open.

4. He stood there with his hands in his pockets

5. With the weather changed, we decided to put off the sports meet.

大家试试分析上面的句子中with 结构中的第三部分是由什么形式来充当的。

那么,独立主格结构又是什么“东东”呢?这个结构说白了跟with结构基本上是一样的,只不过比with结构少了个with 而已,换句话说,把with结构中的with仍掉就成为独立主格结构了,超简单吧,with结构是由三部分组成,那么独立主格结构就是有两部分组成:

名词/代词+to do/doing /done /形容词/介词短语等 。下面的例句:

6.Weather permitting ,we’ll go on a picnic tomorrow (如果天气允许,我们明天去野餐)

7.I gave you today three-fourths of the money, the rest to follow within a month.

(今天我把那笔钱的四分之三给你,其余部分下个月内给你。)

8.The work done, they went home.(工作完了,他们回家了)

9. He stood at the door, his hands in his pocket..

(他站在门口,双手插在口袋里。)

10. He was waiting, his face white with anger.

(他在等待着,脸气得发白。)’

请大家分析一下上面句子中划线部分作为独立主格结构是由什么形式来充当的。With 结构和独立主格结构,大家了解即可,看到这两个结构能把他们辨认出来就可以了。

第四节 真正的“傀儡”—— It

我们说it是”傀儡”,主要源于it所特有的品质,it 可以作形式宾语和形式主语,这是其他词所不能的。形式主语,顾名思义,就是形式上的主语,并不是真正的主语,所以我们说它是“傀儡”并不为过。大家看下面的例子:

I. It is no use writing to her. 给她写信是没用的。

2. It is no use persuading him not to do this. 劝说他不干那件事是没有的。

3. It is difficult to understand these sentences. 理解这些句子是一件困难的事

形式宾语,顾名思义,形式上的宾语,并不是真正的宾语,大家看下面的例句:

4. I found it difficult to take care of a child. 我发现照看一个小孩子是困难的

5. I think it necessary to learn English. 我认为学英语很有必要。

判断下列句子中it 是作形式主语还是形式宾语

1. It is foolish of you to waste money .

2. I find it quite pleasant to talk with you .

3. It is impossible for us to understand him.

4. He made it clear why he didn’t come on time .

5. It is no use trying to explain .

6. She thinks it easy to understand a letter written in English.

7. It’s not very useful to read the whole book.

8. Mike made it clear that he disagreed.

9. Is it possible to go by bike ?

10. He felt it his duty to help her .

综合练习一

分析下列句子的句子结构

1. we are working.。

2. I can swim very well.

3. The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me.

4. Why does the wind blow.

5. The rain has been pulling down for a whole day.

6. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.

7. Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone.

8. You must get the car ready by tomorrow.

9. I have a lot of clothes to wash.

10. He gave his son some advice on reading.

11. Read me the first paragraph.

12. I’ve ordered some soup for you.

13. He began leaning English ten years ago.

14. My being late worried my teacher.

15. The president himself would visit our school.

16. April fool’Day is the special day of the year

17. He usually takes a nap after lunch.

18. I got it back at once.

19. He finished lunch and went into the garden.

20. The telephone rang.

21. We study hard.

22. His father might have died.

23. Will you leave the door open/ unclosed

24. Can you make the dog stand still?

25. The landlord had them working day and night.

26. A sound knowledge of grammar is important to good writing.

27. We all breathe, eat, and drink.

28. I woke up at 6:00 in the morning.

29. The book weighs five kilos.

30. They will be flying to London.

综合练习一 答案

分析下列句子的句子结构

1. We are working. 我们在工作。主系表

2. I can swim very well. 我游泳泳地很好。主谓

3. The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me. 那个使者给我了一瓶啤酒。主谓双宾/主谓宾状

4. Why does the wind blow? 风为什么会吹?主谓

5. The rain has been pulling down for a whole day. 雨已经下了一整天了。主谓

6. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 汤姆和杰克都喜欢乡村音乐。主谓宾

7. Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone.

吉姆请我把他的最好的祝愿带给每个人。主谓宾补

8. You must get the car ready by tomorrow. 到明天为止你一定要把小车准备好。主谓宾补

9. I have a lot of clothes to wash. 我有许多的衣服需要洗。主谓宾,to wash做clothes的定语

10. He gave his son some advice on reading. 他在阅读方面给了他的儿子一些建议。主谓双宾

11. Read me the first paragraph. 给我读第一段。主谓双宾

12. I’ve ordered some soup for you. 我已经为你要了一些汤。主谓双宾

13. He began leaning English ten years ago. 十年前他开始学英语。主谓宾

14. My being late worried my teacher.

我的迟到让我的老师很担心。主谓宾,动名词短语My being late做主语

15. The president himself would visit our school. 总统将亲自参观我们的学校。主谓宾

16. April fool’Day is the special day of the year 愚人节是一年中很特别的一天。主系表

17. He usually takes a nap after lunch. 他通常在午饭之后要小睡一会儿。主谓宾

18. I got it back at once. 我马上把它取回 。主谓宾

19. He finished lunch and went into the garden. 他吃完午饭后去了花园。主+并列谓语

20. The telephone rang. 电话响了。主谓

21. We study hard. 我们努力学习。主谓

22. His father might have died. 他的父亲可能已经去世了。主谓

23. Will you leave the door open/ unclosed? 你要把门开着?主谓宾补

24. Can you make the dog stand still? 你能让那只狗站着不动吗?主谓宾补

25. The landlord had them working day and night. 地主让他们整天工作,主谓宾补

26. A sound knowledge of grammar is important to good writing.

扎实的语法知识对于写作是重要的。主系表

27. We all breathe, eat, and drink. 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。主谓

28. I woke up at 6:00 in the morning。 我在早上6点钟起床。主谓

29. The book weighs five kilos. 那本书重达10斤。主谓,five kilos做状语

30. They will be flying to London. 他们将飞往伦敦。主谓宾

综合练习二

Exercises:分析下列句子的句子结构

31. The shop assistant found some certain materials for me.

32. He promised me a new English-Chinese dictionary.

33. Please pass a newly- published to me.

34. He lived in Guang Zhou.

35. The father is showing the boy how to plant trees.

36. His uncle left him some money.

37. She has taught us English for 3 years.

38. I like popular music.

39. She knows what to do next.

40. I hate arriving late.

41. The meeting starts at three.

42. My heart is beating loudly.

43. Tom’s birthday is two weeks away.

44. He told me the news by telephone.

45. There are many people in the room.

46. He isn’t as tall as his brother.

47. I have a new sweater.

48. It is important to learn a foreign language now.

49. Trees turn green in spring.

50. He wants to be a doctor.

51. He refused to help me.

52. My teacher advises me to read English every day.

53. He became ill again.

54. He gives me a pen.

55. He speaks English better than me.

56. The earth is bigger than the moon.

57. There are some babies in the garden.

58. We have had supper.

59. The policemen are looking for the missed paper.

60. They elected him chairman.

综合练习二 答案

31. The shop assistant found some certain materials for me.

那个店员为我找到一些材料。主谓双宾/主谓宾状

32. He promised me a new English-Chinese dictionary.

他许诺说要给我一本新英汉字典。主谓双宾

33. Please pass a newly- published to me.

请递给我一本新出版的。主谓双宾/主谓宾状

34. He lived in Guang Zhou. 他住在广州。主谓宾

35. The father is showing the boy how to plant trees.

那位父亲正在给那个男孩演示怎么种树。主谓双宾

36. His uncle left him some money. 他的叔叔留给了他一些钱。主谓双宾

37. She has taught us English for 3 years. 她已经教我们英语三年了。主谓双宾

38. I like popular music. 我喜欢流行音乐。主谓宾

39. She knows what to do next. 她知道下一步怎么做。主谓双宾

40. I hate arriving late. 我讨厌来晚。主谓双宾

41. The meeting starts at three. 会议在三点开始。主谓

42. My heart is beating loudly. 我的心跳的很厉害。主谓

43. Tom’s birthday is two weeks away. 汤姆的生日是在两星期之后。主系表

44. He told me the news by telephone. 他是通过电话告诉我那个消息的。主谓双宾

45. There are many people in the room. 房间里有很多人。There be句型

46. He isn’t as tall as his brother. 他和他的哥哥不一样高。主系表

47. I have a new sweater. 我有一件新运动衣。主谓宾

48. It is important to learn a foreign language now. 现在去学一们外语是非常重要的。主系表

49. Trees turn green in spring. 树木在春天变成绿色。主系表

50. He wants to be a doctor. 他要成为一个医生。主谓宾

51. He refused to help me. 他拒绝帮助我。主谓宾

52. My teacher advises me to read English every day.

我的老师建议我每天读英语。主谓宾补

53. He became ill again. 他又病了。主系表

54. He gives me a pen. 他给我一只笔。主谓双宾

55. He speaks English better than me. 他说英语比我好。主谓宾

56. The earth is bigger than the moon. 地球比月亮大。主系表

57. There are some babies in the garden. 在花园里面有一些婴儿。There be句型

58. We have had supper. 我们吃过午饭了。主谓宾

59. The policemen are looking for the missed paper. 警察正在寻找失踪的文件。主谓宾

60. They elected him chairman. 他们推选他当主席。主谓宾补

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